On December 21, the U.S. Congress passed and the President signed a bill that includes dyslexia screening and interventions for all federal and state incarcerated inmates.
”Dyslexia is a leading cause of illiteracy, so to address illiteracy and incarceration, we must better address dyslexia.” Senator Bill Cassidy.
A study found that 80 percent of prison inmates at the state prison in Huntsville, Texas, were functionally illiterate and 48 percent were dyslexic.
Section language from Title I, Subchapter D that include dyslexia are listed below:
TITLE I—RECIDIVISM REDUCTION
SEC. 101. RISK AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM.
(a) IN GENERAL.—Chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code,
is amended by inserting after subchapter C the following:
‘‘SUBCHAPTER D—RISK AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM
‘‘3631. Duties of the Attorney General.
‘‘3632. Development of risk and needs assessment system.
‘‘3633. Evidence-based recidivism reduction program and recommendations.
Title I: Section 3631: Duties of Attorney General
‘‘(B) to address the specific criminogenic needs of the
‘‘(C) all prisoners are able to successfully participate
in such programs;
‘‘(6) determine when to provide incentives and rewards
for successful participation in evidence-based recidivism reduction
programs or productive activities in accordance with subsection
‘‘(7) determine when a prisoner is ready to transfer into
prerelease custody or supervised release in accordance with
section 3624; and
‘‘(8) determine the appropriate use of audio technology
for program course materials with an understanding of dyslexia.
In carrying out this subsection, the Attorney General may use
existing risk and needs assessment tools, as appropriate.
Title I: Section 3632: Development of Risk and Needs Assessment System
‘‘(h) DYSLEXIA SCREENING .—
‘‘(1) SCREENING .—The Attorney General shall incorporate
a dyslexia screening program into the System, including by
screening for dyslexia during—
‘‘(A) the intake process; and
‘‘(B) each periodic risk reassessment of a prisoner.
(2) TREATMENT .—The Attorney General shall incorporate
programs designed to treat dyslexia into the evidence-based
recidivism reduction programs or productive activities required
to be implemented under this section. The Attorney General
may also incorporate programs designed to treat other learning
Title I: Section 3633: Evidence Based Recidivism Reduction Program and Recommendations
‘‘(C) the addition of any new effective evidence-based
recidivism reduction programs that the Attorney General
‘‘(b) REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING DYSLEXIA
MITIGATION .—In carrying out subsection (a), the Attorney General
shall consider the prevalence and mitigation of dyslexia in prisons,
‘‘(1) reviewing statistics on the prevalence of dyslexia, and
the effectiveness of any programs implemented to mitigate the
effects of dyslexia, in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons
and State-operated prisons throughout the United States; and
‘‘(2) incorporating the findings of the Attorney General
under paragraph (1) of this subsection into any directives given
to the Bureau of Prisons under paragraph (5) of subsection
Title I: Section 3634: Report
‘‘(iii) promote crime reduction programs using evidence-
based practices and strategic planning to help
reduce crime and criminal recidivism.
‘‘(8) Statistics on—
‘‘(A) the prevalence of dyslexia among prisoners in
prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons; and
‘‘(B) any change in the effectiveness of dyslexia mitigation
programs among such prisoners that may be attributed
to the incorporation of dyslexia screening into the System
and of dyslexia treatment into the evidence-based recidivism
reduction programs, as required under this chapter.
Title I: ‘‘§ 3635. Definitions
‘‘In this subchapter the following definitions apply:
(1) DYSLEXIA .—The term ‘dyslexia’ means an unexpected
difficulty in reading for an individual who has the intelligence
to be a much better reader, most commonly caused by a difficulty
in the phonological processing (the appreciation of the
individual sounds of spoken language), which affects the ability
of an individual to speak, read, and spell.
‘‘(2) DYSLEXIA SCREENING PROGRAM .—The term ‘dyslexia
screening program’ means a screening program for dyslexia
‘‘(A) evidence-based (as defined in section 8101(21) of
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20
U.S.C. 7801(21))) with proven psychometrics for validity;
‘‘(B) efficient and low-cost; and
‘‘(C) readily available.